These techniques are based on forcing a polymer solution through a matrix of cross-linked polymer particles at high pressure of up to several hundred bars. Examples: polyethylene, PVC, nylon. Classification on the bases of source: Natural polymers: These polymers are obtained either from plants or animal and are named as plant polymer e.g. There is little interest in small organic molecules based on the monomers. There are several ways of classification of polymers based on some special considerations. Thus the sign of ΔG is dependent on the sign and magnitude of heat of mixing ΔH. For example natural rubber is obtained as latex from rubber trees. Classification of polymers based on their structure can be of three types: (i) Linear polymers: These polymers are similar in structure to a long straight chain which identical links connected to each other. When monomers react in a manner that branches are formed in the chains of the polymers, then those polymers are known as branched polymers. derived from proteins or vulcanised oils, are classified in C08H. Polymer is basically thousands/millions of monomer units or single repeating unit connected in long chains. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). Polymers: Lecture 2 Prepared by Dr Arunima Nayak and Dr Brij Bhushan Classification of Polymers 1. In these polymers the monomer units are cross-linked to form a three dimensional network. The small molecules that are used in synthesizing a polymer are called monomers. Polyurethanes, polyacrylonitrile, PVC, epoxy and styrenic copolymers ranked as most … Polymers: Lecture 2 Prepared by Dr Arunima Nayak and Dr Brij Bhushan Classification of Polymers 1. Classification of Polymers Based on Structure (i) Linear polymers These are the polymers in which the monomer units are linked to one another to form long linear chains. The polymers which are prepared in the laboratory are referred to as synthetic polymers or man-made polymers. Addition, Videos and Examples Polymers: Classification, Polymerization, Biodegradable Polymers, Rubber. They are classified into two broad categories. 27/05/2008 : Version 2.0 . An elastomer must be above its glass transition temperature, \(T_g\), and have a low degree of crystallinity. Polymers can also be classified based on the type of monomers present in them. The monomer … The small molecules that are used in synthesizing a polymer are called monomers. Monomers are thus building blocks of polymers. Monomers are small and simple molecules depend and have a capacity of forming two chemical bonds with two other monomers. These may be represented as : -[A-A-A-A-A-A]- Homopolymers are commonly named by placing the prefix poly in front of the constituent monomer name. Some examples of the synthetic polymers are polyethylene, polystyrene, PTFE synthetic rubber, nylon, PVC, bakelite, teflon, orion, etc. E.g. Emulsion Polymers are tremendously versatile! 1.2 Polymer Structure. Classification of polymers based on their structure can be of three types: (i) Linear polymers: These polymers are similar in structure to a long straight chain which identical links connected to each other. INTRODUCTION Polymers are very large molecules made when hundreds of monomers join together to form long chains . Based on Structure/Shape of polymer Polymers can be linear, branched, cross linked or networked. Classification of polymers: Classification based on source of availability: 1. CONTENTS Introduction Types of Polymer Classification of Polymer Characteristics of Polymer Application References 2 3. This usually implies that the polymer is made from all identical monomer molecules. 2. Polymers are a huge chain of molecules. received from Ireland after the CA meeting in : December 2007 some additional guidance on . All simple molecules cannot behave as monomers but only those with two or more bonding sites can act as monomers. All plastics are polymers … Copolymer: On the other hand, a copolymer is made up of two or more types of repeating units. Thus molecules like ammonia, water, ethanol etc are not monomers. The process of converting monomers to polymer is called polymerization. These reactions are classified as: Depending on how they are linked or joined (chemical bonds or intermolecular forces) and on the arrangement of the different chains that forms the polymer, the resulting polymeric materials can be classified as: Depending on the chemical composition, polymers can be inorganic such as glass, or they can be organic, such as adhesives of epoxy resin. For example: Polythene, Nylon,Teflon, PVC . Polymers may however still be subject to authorisation and restriction. Fig.4. ADHESIVE & GLUE | In these polymers the monomer units are joined to form a long and linear chain. A few other polymers that are traditionally recognized as belonging to the addition class are polymerized not by addition to an ethylene double bond but through a ring-opening polymerization of a sterically strained cyclic monomer. This classification includes the following categories; 1.  The word POLYMER comes from the Greek words poly means many and mer means parts. For example; Cellulose diacetate, Vulcanised rubber. Each monomer that is added to form polymers is called repeat units. Quick summary with Stories. These include starch cellulose, proteins, nucleic acids and natural rubber. Polymer is used as a synonym for plastic . The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. Polystyrene 3. Classification Based on Composition of Polymers: [1] Homopolymer: A polymer resulting from the polymerization of a single monomer; a polymer consisting substantially of a single type of repeating unit. The physical and chemical properties of polymers vary widely, based on their monomers, structures, and additives. B- Classification Based on the structure of polymers : There are three different types based on the structure of the polymers. under REACH. Poly he a methylene dopamine 4. These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. Classification of polymer based on sources. Polyethene, PVC, Nylons, polyesters etc. POLYMERS . Linear Polymers - A long chain of skeletal atoms to which are attached the substituent group. Classification of Polymers Polymers are classified into different types on the basis of monomers, source of availability, structure,mode of synthesis. The … Polymers are a huge chain of molecules. Source-based nomenclature can be used when the can be monomer identified. Polymer and monomers (Polymers definition) Polymers are high molecular mass substances containing large number of repeating structural units derived from simple molecules. Artificial Polymers The polymer chains still have some freedom to move, but are prevented from permanently moving relative to each other by the cross-links. 2. The dissolving process in polymer is shown in fig below Solubility process. Polyethylene consist of monomer ethene only. Two very common techniques for measuring the molecular mass of polymers are high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), also known as size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Copolymer: On the other hand, a copolymer is made up of two or more types of re… Based on Number of Monomers: Polymers can be homopolymer or copolymer when the number of monomers are one and two respectively. 2] Classification Based on Structure of Polymers. For example; cellulose, starch, proteins, nucleic acids. 4. The polymerization of monomers into copolymers is called copolymerization. It is also known as macro molecules. On the basis of monomers On the basis of the monomers polymers are classified into two types namely The word ‘polymer is coined from two Greek words ‘poly’ means ‘many’ and ‘mer’ means ‘unit or part’. These monomers are known as straight polymers. The polymers that ranked as most hazardous are made of monomers classified as mutagenic and/or carcinogenic (category 1A or 1B). The building block through which any polymer molecule is built is known as a monomer. The formation of the polymer chains are produced by different polyreactions that can occur between monomers. Thermosets are strong and durable. Branched chain Polymers are linear polymers containing branches. Anything that is made up of same type of Chemical composition which is repeated numerous times can be considered as a polymer. Polymerization is the process by which ​monomer molecules ​ are reacted together in a chemical reaction to form a polymer chain (or three-dimensional networks). Monomers and their dimer counterparts are archetypal plasmonic structures and a versatile theory could rightfully be expected to offer new insights for both individual monomers as well as for ass… Study Materials Classification of Polymers: Source, Structure, Polymerisation, Examples Types of Polymerization: Condensation vs. The synthetic polymers can be further classified as these made up of monomers and comonomer units. Examples of cross linked polymers are bakelite, glyptal, melamine-formaldehyde polymer etc. This process is slow because of cross-linking, crystallinity or hydrogen bonding. The polymers were ranked based on monomer hazard classifications, and initial assessments were made. For example;High density polythene,PVC, Nylon, Polyester. • Linear polymers have monomeric units joined end to end in single chains. 5. Common examples would be … Polyvinyl chloride 2. Polymerisation The process of conversion of simple molecules i.e monomers into polymers is called polymerisation. ADHESIVES | A simulated skeletal structure of a network polymer with a high cross-link density is shown below. Classification of Polymers. 3. Alkenes, vinyl chloride, adipic acid, glycol with two bonding sites act as monomers. The polymers are defined as macromolecules composed of one or more chemical units (monomers) that are repeated throughout a chain. Polymers are divided into three types on the basis of source of availability. Natural polymers These polymers are found in plants and animals. Polymer means many monomers. Monomers can be classified in many ways. 2] Classification Based on Structure of Polymers Classification of polymers based on their structure can be of three types: (i) Linear polymers: These polymers are similar in structure to a long straight chain which identical links connected to each other. For example; Bakelite, melamine formaldehyde resin. For example Polymers example Polythene Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Nylon Teflon Bakelite Terylene Cellulose diacetate Vulcanised rubber Starch Melamine formaldehyde resin Polymers Uses Coatings Adhesives Laminates Electrolytes Plastic pipes Films Questions on polymers What are polymers? Homopolymer: A homopolymer is made up of only one type of monomer. The urea-formaldehyde resin is a non-transparent plastic obtained by heating formaldehyde and urea. Examples are proteins, cellulose, starch, resins and rubber. A copolymer is a polymer derived from more than one species of monomer. Classification based on the Structure of Polymers. Artificial polymers: They are artificially made in industries for various commercial uses. The glass transition temperature of polymers determines the temperature at which the polymer mechanical properties of polymers change dramatically, when the glass transition temperature is slightly below room temperature the polymer behaves like an elastic material (elastomer), when the temperature is higher than the glass transition temperature the polymer behaves as a rigid material (thermoset). Polymerization, as we know it, is the process by which monomers undergo a chemical reaction to bond and form a polymer chain. A polymer is like a thread joins many coins punched through the center, in the end we get a string of coins, the coins would be the monomers, and the chain with the coins would be the polymer. Based on how they are polymerized, the classification is as follows: Addition Polymerization : Polymers formed by the addition of monomers repeatedly without the removal of any by-product (water or alcohol). E.g. A polymer is a high molecular mass compound ranging from 5000 to one million and they are formed by the combination of a large number of one or more low molecular weight compounds. When monomers react in a manner that branches are formed in the chains of the polymers, then those polymers are known as branched polymers. Copolymer contains two or more different monomers. The process in which monomers are all linked together to form the long-chain polymers is called a polymerization reaction or polymerization process. There may be extensive van der Waals and hydrogen bonding between the chains. The physical properties of the two acidic monomers are con-trasted in Table 1. Copolymer - It is called when the polymer formed by at least 2 different monomers along the entire chain. Addition Polymers are formed by the repeated addition of monomers containing double or triple bonds. Since the entropy of mixing ΔS is always positive. For example, polythene, polyvinyl chloride etc. The word POLYMER comes from the Greek words poly means many and mer means parts . A polymer can be named in one of two ways. Classification of polymers. Some examples of the synthetic polymers are polyethylene, polystyrene, PTFE synthetic rubber, nylon, PVC, bakelite, teflon, orion, etc. Due to their complex structures, different behaviours, and vast applications we can, classify polymers based on the following criteria: 2) The gel gradually disintegrates into true solution. This classification includes the following categories; Homopolymer: A homopolymer is made up of only one type of monomer. Organic polymers can be also divided into natural polymers such as proteins and synthetic polymers as thermosets materials. The basic part of a polymer are the monomers, the monomers are the chemical units that are repeated throughout the chain of a polymer, eg polyethylene monomer is ethylene, which is repeated x times along throughout the chain. The simple molecules from which polymers are derived are called monomers. Polyethylene Classification of Polymers 1. Classification Based on Composition of Polymers. Starch is a polymer of glucose, cellulose is also a polymer of glucose, proteins are polymers of amino acids. ADHESIVE BONDING. preparation of polymers. 55 plastic polymers were ranked based on monomer classifications, and assessed. CLASSIFICATION OF POLYMERS : 1. Polymers are large molecules made up of alike repeating blocks known as monomers. Natural polymers: These polymers are found in plants and animals. of monomers join together to form long chains. Based on the type of polymerization, polymers can be classified as: i) Addition polymers: These type of polymers are formed by the repeated addition of monomer molecules. For reasonably non polar molecules and in the absence of hydrogen bonding ΔH is positive. Natural polymers: They are naturally present within the bodies of the living organisms. Oligomer – a small macromolecule consisting of around 10 to 100 chemically bonded monomer repeat units. In these polymers the monomer units are joined to form long chain with branches of different length. These are natural polymers with some modifications. Homopolymers: These consist of chains with identical bonding linkages to each monomer unit. Therefore, cannot be classified under a single branch. These monomers are known as straight polymers. Glyptal is made up of monomers ethylene glycol and phthalic acid. Branched Polymers - Linear polymer with branches with same structure/polymer as the main chain (1 kind of polymer) Crosslinked/network Polymers - Chemical linkage exist between polymer chain . Rubber bands and other elastics are made of elastomers. Monomers react with each other in end to end fashion such that they form linear or straight chains of polymers. Most important addition polymers are polymerized from olefins and vinyl-based monomers. To stretch, the polymer chains must not be part of a rigid solid - either a glass or a crystal. 3] Based on Mode of Polymerisation Polymerization is the process by which monomer molecules are reacted together in a chemical reaction to form a polymer chain (or three-dimensional networks). The average molecular weight of the polymer molecular. The unit substance or substances from which the polymer is obtained is called a monomer. Classification of polymers. These linear chains are closely packed in space. Can have more than one type of repeat unit. Based on their structure, the polymers can be classified into three types such as linear polymers, branched-chain polymers, and network, or cross linked polymers. The synthetic polymers can be further classified as these made up of monomers and comonomer units. Among the other properties that can be modified based on these factors include solubility in and other solvents, melting point, flammability, color, hardness, transparency, film thickness, wetability, surface friction, moldability, and particle size—the list goes on. The monomers in these are linked together to form a long chain. The reactivity ratio of a growing copolymer chain terminating in a given monomer is the ratio of the reaction rate constant for addition of the same monomer and the rate constant for addition of the other monomer. By Monomer Homo Polymers A polymer consist of identical monomers is called homo polymer. Based on Structure/Shape of polymer Polymers can be linear, branched, cross linked or networked. These belong to the polymer families of polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. Polylactic acid, or polylactide (PLA) is a thermoplastic polyester with backbone formula (C 3 H 4 O 2) n or [–C(CH 3)HC(=O)O–] n, formally obtained by condensation of lactic acid C(CH 3)(OH)HCOOH with loss of water (hence its name). If they are classified based on the backbone of the polymeric chain then they will be divided as organic and inorganic polymers. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a plastic polymer made of monomer vinyl chloride. Section 2.1 and 3.1 – Reference to monomers as : intermediate reworded in order to be consistent with . Examples: polyethylene, PVC, nylon. Polymer is defined as very large molecules having high molecular mass. What are monomers? Therefore, cannot be classified under a single branch. Homopolymer consist of only one type of monomers. For very high molecular weight, the solution process takes days or weeks. There may be extensive van der Waals and hydrogen bonding between the chains. Solubility Parameter A polymer is soluble when the Gibbs free energy of mixing i.e ΔG = ΔH - TΔS is negative. These details include the overall chemical composition and the sequence of monomer units in the case of copolymers, the stereochemistry or tacticity of the chain, and the geometric isomerization in the case of diene-type polymers for which several synthesis routes may be possible. The close packing results in high densities, tensile strength and high melting and boiling points. It can also be prepared by ring-opening polymerization of lactide [–C(CH 3)HC(=O)O–] 2, the cyclic dimer of the basic repeating unit. Reactivity ratios. Whereas monomers are simple molecules which undergo polymerization (a phenomenon in which two or more molecules chemically react to combine and form polymers) in order … Among the properties that define the properties of polymers, the most important are: The glass transition temperature of the polymer. Derivatives of natural macromolecular polymers per se, e.g. Copolymer: When two different types of monomers are joined in the same polymer chain, the polymer is called a copolymer. Monomers that participate in condensation polymerization have a different stoichiometry than monomers that participate in addition polymerization: This nylon is formed by condensation polymerization of two monomers, yielding water.  Polymer is used as a synonym for plastic. Based on Source: Under this type of classification, there are three subcategories. Structure of polythene. The transformation of ethene to polythene and interaction of hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid leading to the formation of Nylon- 6, 6 are examples of two different types of polymerisation reactions. There are several ways of classification of polymers based on some special considerations. Working-up, general processes of compounding and after-treatment are covered by subclass C08J. The following are some of the common classifications of polymers: Under this type of classification, there are three sub categories. Polymer nomenclature usually applies to idealised representations; minor structural irregularities are ignored. Based on Structure of Polymers: There are three different types based on the structure of the polymers. The Polymers obtained from nature ( i.e plants and animals) are called natural polymers. Examples are proteins, cellulose, starch, some resins and rubber. Polymers obtained during addition reaction are called addition Polymers. The polymers are also classified based on: … (i) Copolymers : Molecules which are built up of at least two different kinds of monomer are known as co-polymers. In this case heat of mixing per unit volume ∆H= v₁v₂ ( δ₁-δ₂)² Here  v₁ and v₂ are volume fraction of solvent and polymer respectively and δ² is the cohesive e, Classification based on source of availability, Classification of Polymers on the basis of Structure, Classification of polymers on the basis of synthesis. Depending on the repetition or variety of monomers, polymers are classified as: Homopolymer - It is called when the polymer formed by the same monomer throughout its chain. The functionality of monomers depends upon the number of bonding sites in monomer. Revise with Concepts. These are expected to be quite hard, rigid and brittle. Section 3.2.1.2 - Based on the comments . • These chains has no any side chains, ex. 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