Language is central to social interaction in every society, regardless of location and time period. Psycholinguists adhere to the view that individuals learn to read by taking risks that involve them in predicting and guessing as part of the process of making meaning and that individuals learn to write by clarifying ideas as well as experimenting in spelling and punctuation. Its major topic is “ the connection between the structures, vocabularies, and ways 3 fof using particular languages and the social roles of the men and women who speak these languages” (p. 315). One characteristic aspect of learners' second-language use is the high level of variability in their interlanguage at any given time, that is, their use of different versions of the same language construction (e.g., marker of past tense in verbs). Literacy is also featuring more centrally in debates about technological change within the framework of media and communications studies. The field of sociolinguistics can be divided into four major areas: language planning, language attitudes, language and social interaction and language variation. Phonology - LING3005 (2A) This module covers core research topics from theoretical phonology. With the sociolinguistic turn in SLA research, focus shifted from seeing language learning as the gradual development of a language system in individuals to a perspective on language learners as language users in real-life environments. In contrast to the singular focus of subject disciplines, what has become known as the new literacy studies (NLS) represents an integrated sociocultural approach that draws on various conceptual–analytic frameworks, including social anthropology, sociology, critical linguistics, and discourse theory. What slang terms do younger generations use to show their affiliation with certain subgroups and to distinguish themselves from their parents’ generation? One way that sociolinguists study language is through dated written records. As a result, language is not uniform or constant. This theory best explains aspects of convergence and is less successful in explaining divergence, such as described above. We ask questions about topics like childhood games or current social activities. It is the effort to understand the way that social dynamics are affected by individual and/or group language use, variations in language and varying attitudes towards language. The role of social interaction is to provide supporting structures or scaffolding for individual competencies and thus to mediate language learning through communicative patterns and other semiotic tools (van Lier, 2000; Lantolff, 2000). Student concentrating in sociolinguistics and Phonological Theory. Another consequence of the rise of sociocultural theories in SLA research was a focus on the model of communication evoked in different approaches. The former refers to respondents, and the latter to initiators, each sharing their experiential world. Focusing on national language planning and language problems, they highlight issues related to the disappearance of minority languages, subjugated literacies, and the importance of maintaining local literacies. Several sociolinguistic studies have stressed the multifunctionality of telling one’s own experience in online health support groups (Hamilton, 1998; Harrison & Barlow, 2009; Kouper, 2010; Morrow, 2006). People who live in the South, however, often vary in the way they speak and the words they use compared to people who live in the Northwest, even though it is all the same language. All these results suggest that gender has an enormous impact in many relevant situations, like schools, hospitals, courtrooms, etc., but only in combination with other variables; this phenomenon is called intersectionality. 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